The crisis of 2012 – a ploy by foreign financial and political interests, supported by the human predators of the Greek Establishment. (Epilogue b5)

(I   want  to  dedicate these series of  texts  to  those  of  my  former  Greek  students, male and  female, who  in  the end chose “mediocrity”  and  “virtual  reality”  for  the  sake  of  their  own  society, their own  families and  their own “survival”.)


We  shall  return once  again to  the  first  years  of  the  Byzantine Empire,  when  the “conspiracy” between its  political  authorities, the clerical authorities  and  the  International  Jewish Establishment was initiated, and  progressively evolved and took  roots.

The  Byzantine Empire  was  founded by  Constantine the  Great(272A.D.-337A.D.), son  of  the  Roman Caesar Flavius Valerius  Constantius  and his  wife Helen. The Roman  Emperor Diocletian, who introduced the political institution of  the  “tetrarchy”(four individual rulers) in 293A.D., appointed Constantius A’(293A.D.-306A.D), Caesar of  Gaul, Spain and  Britain, meaning  the Western Provinces of the  Roman Empire. Constantine the   Great, son of  Constantius A’, ruled  as Emperor of   the  Western Roman Empire from 312A.D. to  324A.D., and as sole Emperor of the  Empire from 324A.D. to  337A.D.

Constantine the   Great implemented  three major historic decrees which would  define concretely , the political, the historical and  the cultural identity of  Byzantium until its demise, during the  middle of  the 15th  century  A.D..

First  of  all , he signed the  decree of  Mediolanum(Milan) in 313A.D., when  he  was  Emperor of  the  Western  Roman  Empire, enacting the legislation of  “religious tolerance”, therefore, legalizing  Christianity as a  “tolerated religion” which would be under  the  protection of  the  Emperor himself!!! Byzantine Emperor Theodosius A’ was the one  who  on  February 28, 380A.D., in  Salonika, passed the  legislation, making Christianity “the official religion” of  the  Byzantine Empire. Theodosius,  had  activated  the decisions taken by the  First Ecumenical Synod in Nicaea in 325A.D., under the rule of   Byzantine Emperor, Constantine the  Great!!!

The  second  political initiative taken by  Constantine the  Great  was  the  official relocation of  Rome  as capital of  the  Roman Empire  to  Constantinople, which pragmatically meant the creation of  the  Eastern Roman Empire.

Finally, he organised the First Ecumenical   Synod of Nicaea in 325A.D., which was  a determinant historical  factor  concerning the  evolution of  Christianity  as a World Religion. This Synod defined , validated  and  formalized  the  various Christian dogmas, the church institutions and finally, the socio-political status of   the  Church in relation to the powers of the Emperor, his court and the local administrations  throughout the territory of the Byzantine Empire!!!

The  Byzantine Empire was a  “superficial simile” of  the  Roman Empire, as the Roman Empire had been “a  rough copy” of  the political and social  culture of  the  Greek City  States!!! The political, cultural  and  institutional cohesion of  the  Byzantine Empire was superficial and  not the  end  product of a historical  evolution!!!

The  Byzantine political  leadership , most  of  the time, functioned in an  arbitrary way and  dictatorially,  because they had not established  those  political institutions  such  as  a  constitution  and  an  official political opposition,  which could oversee its political decisions  and  decrees.

The  Byzantine political leadership, and  more  specifically the  Byzantine  Emperor, his court and his political  and administrative officials, exercised a political legitimacy  through  physical intimidation, violence and a despotic governance, always with  the  support of  the  Greek  Orthodox  Church and its Elders!!! The Church ensured the  absolute obedience of  the simple  Christian Citizen of  the  Empire by utilizing the  “terrorism” of  religious persecution, of  social marginalization  and  excommunication!!! As it  was with the   Political  Establishment of the  Byzantine State,  similarly ,the Clerical  Establishment’s main  goals were  the  accumulation of  great  wealth for  themselves  and  the  means to  control and determine the everyday lives and actions of all Byzantine citizens!!!

The  real image of  the  Byzantine Empire  as a  political regime and  as a political  culture  has  been  described comprehensively by famous  scholars and  thinkers of the  European Enlightenment during  the 17th  and  18th century  A.D. , whose  basic analytical  instruments were rationalism and  the dialectic thought process!!! A.A. Vasiliev, a famous  Russian historian , specializing in  Byzantine Studies, in his book  ‘The  History of  the  Byzantine  Empire,324-1453’ ,on  pages 16  and  17,  notes the  following: “…. The  epoch of  Rationalism with  its basic features, the  negation of  the past, religious scepticism and a  forceful critique of  the powers of  the  clergy and   of  despotic monarchy, could  not  find an interesting element in the  Byzantine  Empire….Voltaire, judging the historical  epoch of  the  Roman Empire, adds, ‘There is  another history more  comical than that of  Rome, since the  period of  Tacitus; this  being the  history of the  Byzantium. This unworthy  historic collection is  made up of  nothing  else except  orations  and  miracles. It   is  an  anathema to the  human  intellect.’…”.(translation of  the Greek  text)(Vasiliev,A.A., The  History of  the  Byzantine  Empire, 324-1453, pp.16-17,  Edited by Pelekanos, Athens 2006, University Press, 1928-1929)

We  shall  continue with a historical commentary made   by  Mrs. Helene Glykatzi  Ahrweiler  in an  interview  she  gave to the  journalist Niko  Bakounaki for  the  Greek newspaper ‘to Vima’ and  which  was  published on April 2010. Mrs. Ahrweiler is a world famous Byzantinologist , who  served as vice-Rector(1970-1973) and  from 1976 as  Rector of  the  University of  Sorbonne. Similarly, in 1982, she  was  elected  Chancellor of  all the Universities of  Paris, while from 1989 to 1991, she  presided as  President of  the  French Cultural Centre , Georges Pompidou-Beaubourg.

The   title of  the interview of  Mrs. Ahrweiler is in English translation, ‘We  are  all  Byzantines’!!! Through her  various  answers to  the  Greek  reporter, she tries to  convince her  Greek  readers that the  Byzantine Empire functioned historically   as  “the  Saviour” of  Greek  Civilization and of the  Greek  Language.

This “set up” historical position   concerning    Mrs. Ahrweiler,  we  shall  try to disprove,  by   referring to authentic historical  facts and objective historical analyses,    formulated  by  “objective” and  “responsible”  historical scholars !!! We  shall therefore reveal the “murky role” played by  Mrs. Ahrweiler in her  efforts to distort  historical reality and  historical  truth, thus accommodating the “cultural  distortions” propagated by  the  Christian  Church and the International Jewish Establishment!!! A  “cultural conspiracy”  whose main focus is  to  downgrade the Historical Status of  Ancient  Greek  Civilization and its Historical Contributions in  defining the societal institutions of  the  Modern Western World!!!

In  her interview for the Greek newspaper ‘to  Vima’, on April 2010, answering the query of  the  reporter  as  to  the reason for  the  recent  public interest in  Greece concerning the  Byzantium, Mrs. Ahrweiler, as a  “good diplomat” , gave  the  following  answer: “ …because Byzantium is  the  Greek language and  Christian Orthodoxy, meaning the  two  basic  components of  the  Greek  identity . Surely, the Byzantium was a  multi-ethnic empire, but a  Greek-speaking empire. The fact that Byzantium was  Greek speaking, it  saved all  of  Greek civilization…”!!! (translation of  the  Greek  text)(p.1,

What else could Mrs. Ahrweiler   provide  as  an  answer, knowing full well the “sinister role” she is constantly  playing  , distorting the historical and  cultural  experiences of  the  Greek Nation and  the  Greek  Race under the various “repressive” political but also clerical leaderships  of  the  Byzantine Empire!!!

Nevertheless, there is a different valuation concerning the  role played by  Byzantine political authorities and  the  clerical  leadership of  the  Greek  Orthodox  Church, related to  the  cultural identity of the  Greek Nation. This  historical  differentiation  comes from  “well respected” and “objective”  Greek  Byzantologists like  Nicolaos Tomathakis, professor of  Byzantine Literature at  the  University of  Athens.

Nicolaos Tomathakis in his work ‘Introduction to Byzantine Literature’, volume A, second edition, Athens 1956, explains the following:”…Christianity  was  hostile  mainly  towards the  Hellenic social  component as a  mode  of  life and thinking…The  most  effective insinuation of  Christianity against the  Greek  classical world was its  exposure as  being idolatrous. For  idolatry were  often accused  non-Christians by organised mobs, a  religious ritual(idolatry) which was unknown to  them… Nevertheless, very soon, the name designation for a  Greek  person(ethnikos) was  identified with the ritual of  idolatry…”(translation of  the Greek text)(p.9,…)

Mrs. Ahrweiler, a world  famous  historian of  the  Byzantium, “throwing  dust” in  the eyes of  her  Greek lecturers, in  her book ‘the  Ideology of  the  Byzantine  Empire’, describes the persecution  of  the  Greek  citizens  of  the  Byzantine Empire by its political leaders and  by  the  Greek  Orthodox  Clergy as  initiatives and  actions taken against idolaters, underestimating in  this  way the cultural  identity  of  the  Greeks then. At  the  same time, Mrs. Ahrweiler identifies with the “unhistorical  position” of  the  Christian  Church  Establishment that the  Ancient Greeks were idolaters and  naturally “spiritually imperfect”!!!

In the Ancient   Greek  Religion,  there was  no  worship of  idols, only of  nature in  all its forms. Idolatry  was a  religious ritualistic characteristic of all the religions of  the  Middle  East  and  of Asia  Minor, including the  Traditional  Jewish Religion  which  through time, had adopted  in an  incremental  way, the  religious beliefs of  the various communities  and  tribes of  Canaan in  Palestine!!!

Mrs.  Ahrweiler, in  her book ‘ the  Political  Ideology  of  the  Byzantine  Empire’, makes  the  following  comments:”….There were  political measures  taken   against the  idolaters  which  often took the  form of real persecutions. The  Oracle  at  Delphi was to  silence itself, the  Olympic Games and  the  Religious Rituals of  Eleusis or  the  Eleusinian Mysteries were forbidden.  Sacred  Greek sites  were pillaged and the  pagan priests were obliged to discontinue their religious  functions or face  death, as  historian Livanios informs us…..”.( translation of the Greek text)(Glykatzi-Ahrweiler,Helene, ‘The Political Ideology  of  the  Byzantine Empire’, p.17,Editing House Psichogios, Athens 1988)

In  order  to  better comprehend “the conspiracy” between the political elites of  the Byzantine  Empire, the  Greek  Orthodox  Church with  its center in Constantinople, and the  International  Jewish Establishment, we shall refer to  the last  “pagan”  Byzantine Emperor, Julian, who during the  period he  ruled(as Caesar with his cousin Constantius B’  from 355A.D. to  360A.D.,and alone as  Augustus  from 361A.D. until 363A.D.),  tried  through his  state policies to  restore Ancient Greek  Culture during a  time when  his Judeo-Christian  citizens  were defining   and  controlling to a large  degree the image of the political  culture of  his  Empire!!!(p.1,

Julian was the  last Byzantine emperor of  the  dynasty of  the  Constanteens and the only  “pagan”  emperor  after  Constantine  the  Great(272A.D.-337A.D.). Julian was  the first  cousin  of  Emperor Constantius B’ and was  born in  Constantinople in  331A.D. Immediately after the  death  of  Constantine  the  Great,  Byzantine soldiers  lynched  Constantine’s   half –  brothers, one of them being   Julius, the father of  Julian and  Gallo, as  well as many of his relatives  and supporters, including  Dalmatian,  Julian’ older brother. The official historical narrative at  that time ,was that the army had  acted spontaneously and  forcefully on the  evidence that  Constantine the  Great had been  poisoned by his brothers. Nevertheless, later evidence revealed that Constantius B’, his son, was the person responsible for the murder of   Julian’s relatives, this, in  order to control  absolutely the  political hegemony of  the  Byzantine Empire after his father’s  death!!!(p.1,

All of  Julian’s  family were  murdered by Coonstantius B’ in the  course of one  night, except for himself and  his  younger brother Gallo. Constantius spared them because they were still very young and did not  pose  any  threat to his political  power hold. Julian grew  up far  from  the  royal court and its  political  intrigues, while he  went  first to  Nicomedia and  then to Cappadocia( then, major  cities of  Asia Minor) , where he  studied the  Ancient Greek  Civilization. At  the  age of 11, Julian’s and his younger brother’s education were  assigned  to  the bishop Georgios of  Cappadocia, where they  studied Christian, but  also non-Christian manuscripts, kept within the rich library  of  bishop Georgiou!!!

In   348A.D., Julian returned  to  Constantinople and studied with the Ethnic  teacher(non-Christian Greek)  Neoclis and the Christian teacher Eccuolio. From 350  to  351A.D., he went to Pergamos and studied with the  philosopher Aedesius, there, becoming acquainted with the neo-platonic philosopher   Maximos of  Ephesus. With the aid of  the wife  of  Emperor Constantius B’, Eusevia, who liked and greatly respected Julius, he escaped execution by  the  Emperor, who  had dethroned and then  executed  his  brother Gallus, since after he  had appointed him Caesar of  the  Eastern Roman Provinces, he proved to be  an  incapable political administrator and an incompetent military commander!!!(p.1,

After the execution of  Gallus in 354A.D., Julian, with the help of  Empress Eusevia  went to  Athens  and  studied in the Greek  Academies  there. In those Traditional Greek Institutions  of  higher learning, he had as  schoolmates,  Gregory the  Theologian and  Basil the Great, two of  the  three First  Fathers  of the Greek  Orthodox Church. In 355A.D., Julian was appointed  Caesar of  the  Western Provinces  of  the  Roman Empire  by  Emperor  Constantius B’, his  first cousin, while the  Emperor also  named him his successor before  his  death in 361A.D.!!!

On  December 361A.D., Julian  entered  Constantinople as Emperor, while very  soon after, he initiated his policy of  reviving the Greek and  the  Roman religions, Greek education  and  learning , as  well  as  Greek culture!!! This policy by  Julian ,which essentially undermined the  cultural  influence as  well  as the economic and  political interests of   the  Greek  Orthodox  Church was fought zealously by  Gregory  the Theologian and by  Basil  the  Great, his former  schoolmates from the Greek  Academies of  Athens. His  two  school  companions had by  then  become  powerful and  influential  clerics within the Church  Establishment!!!( Tsolis, Michalis, Saint Gregory  the  Theologian, pp.37-38, The Orthodox  Press, Athens 1997, a Greek text).

From the  moment  that  Julian functioned as  a political leader within  the  Byzantine  Empire, first  as  Caesar with Constantius B’ from  355A.D. to  360A.D., and  then as sole ruler or as Augustus from 361A.D. to 363A.D., the  Leadership of the Greek Orthodox  Church, with  its advocates, the  ruling classes  of  the  Byzantine Empire and  the  International Jewish  Establishment, assigned to Julian the nicknames  of  “transgressor” and “apostate”;  judging  his stance  towards   the  Christian Religion!!! This discriminating  position  was  not  only  related  to  Julian  reviving  the  Ancient  Greek  Civilization, meaning the Ancient Greek Religion, Ancient Greek  Education, the Ancient Greek philosophic thought process,  Ancient  Greek  Arts and Sciences, but also  these  powerful  societal  forces wanted  to  stain Julian’s character. They  were  identifying   Emperor Julian  as  an immoral, undemocratic, non-condescending and a psychologically unbalanced politician!!!

This  propaganda against the moral and  spiritual integrity  of  Julian  was  since that  time permanent and relentless, an   “unhistorical  reality” which is still being diffused by  today’s Ecclesiastic Scholars  and Theologians.”…the Judeo-Christians wanting  to  besmirch  Julian’s  name,  did not  hesitate to  attach to him unfounded rumours which were started by the Byzantine commentator  and  monk, Gergios Kedrinos, who  had  lived during  the end of  the  11th and  the  beginning of the  12th  century  A.D.. Therefore, thanks to   Kedrinos, we learn that  Julian made libations to  the Gods, disemboweling babies and pregnant women in order to  prepare a type of  wine potion which included their  entrails…”!!! ( translation of the Greek text)(p.4,

Well established Greek historians like Constantinos Paparigopoulos, the professor Caterina Christophilopoulou who has written ‘the History  of  the  Byzantium’, the historian Ioannis Karagianopoulos, who  wrote about  Julian in  his  first volume of ‘the History of  the  Byzantine State’, as well as Mrs. Polymnia Athanasiadou, a Doctor in History; all of  them, describing in detail the life and personality of  Julian, as well as his political and  cultural initiatives, put  great emphasis on the psychology of this “extraordinary” Emperor!!!

This  last historical  component is not  at  all coincidental, since these noteworthy historians  are able to pass on the message to  their readers, that  Julian due  to his   traumatic experiences when  he was only 6  years old(337A.D.), when all of  his  family and  relatives, except for  his younger brother  Gallo  were  assassinated( by  the  soldiers of  Caesar Constantius  B’, successor to  Constantine  the  Great and  first cousin of  Julian), had obstructed  a  normal physiological  development of  his  personality and  character!!!

The  emphasis given by  these historians  concerning  the  disturbed psyche of  Julian since his  childhood, provides them with a  viable inference  to  question  his  mental  and  behavioral constitution  when he put into place  his radical policies. The  crux of his  policies was  to revitalize  Ancient  Greek  Civilization within the  Byzantine Empire, while also marginalizing  the  influence of  the Christian Orthodox Church  and  the  Judeo-Christian Byzantine citizens in all  sectors  of  Byzantine society. Julian wanted  to obstruct  their  influence in  defining  Byzantium’s political  culture, its religion, its  education and  its philosophical mode of  thought, which had been  based to  a  large  degree on  the  Jewish Cultural and  Religious  Traditions  of  the  Old  Testament  and the  Jewish Prophets!!!

For  example, in a historical text   devoted to  the  life  and  philosophy  of  Emperor Julian, providing historical commentaries made by   distinguished Greek historians, it is  stated that  “…(historian) Constantinos Paparigopoulos,  emphasizes the difficult childhood years on  Julian’s  character. In  a  scholarly way,  with an affinity for  understanding, he attributes the hostile position taken by  Julian in  relation to  the new religion(Christianity), not  only on psychological and  personal  reasons but  also on  the influence which  had exercised upon him the “glorious  aesthetic beauty” of  an  Athens in decline…”!!! Similarly, we read that “…(historian)Caterina  Christophilopoulou, in  her book  ‘the History of  the  Byzantium’, she often refers to the Emperor(Julian)…Christophilopoulou does not  omit  to  talk about the events during the childhood  years  of the Emperor…She  assigns great importance on  the  psychological effects of  so  many killings experienced by a small child…”!!!( translation  of  the Greek text)(p.3,

In  the same biographical  text, there is  also  an  analysis made on the   personality of  Julian,  undertaken by the historian Ioannis  Karagianopoulos in the first  volume of  his  work,  ‘The History of the Byzantium’, where he states that “…in the political arena, and especially in  his clashes with  Constantius, Julian seems to be in a state  of  anxiety  and  fear, almost a precautionary fear, by products of circumstances. As   a  human being he is presented  as  oversensitive and unbalanced, courteous and  amiable, loved by his peers and the simple folk, studious with an  impressive education. His  religious  policy is  characterized as  ‘unrealistic’ and he is considered as ‘a  romantic  emperor’…”!!!( translation of the Greek text)(p.3,

From the  historical descriptions of  these  eminent Greek historians, related to the personality and the work of  Julian, we  observe that on the  one hand they consider him a gifted politician , intellectually and  scholarly, yet on the other  hand, they  describe him as  unstable psychologically  and a  romantic ideologically, which  means not a  realist  and  a  pragmatist!!! Under this particular historical perspective, these Greek historians invalidate in “an indirect way”, Julian’s policy in reviving  Ancient Greek  Civilization in the Byzantium and marginalizing the influence of  the  Church Establishment, socially, politically, culturally, but also economically!!!

How  unstable psychologically, inconsistent mentally and  romantic or fanciful ideologically  Julian was, we shall discover by  examining  his  personal  acts and  his  written words!!!

We  have  already mentioned that the historical epochs of  European Renaissance and  European Enlightenment, when the  Ancient  Greek  Ideological   Standards, like rationalism ,the  dialectic thinking process, equanimity and the freedom of thought  and  expression, were  accepted as  “sacred”  for the aesthetics and the quality of life  as  a whole, the intellectuals of  those time periods, “stigmatized” the  Byzantium as a state entity without any political, cultural and  social  cohesion, without any  historical identity!!! Contrary to  this position, these  same intellectuals  and  scholars  considered  the Byzantine Political  Career   of  Julian, as  a  bright historical  exception and  a spiritual parenthesis  to  the  autocratic  policies of the   Byzantine  Emperors  and  to  the  ideological obscurity  of  the Greek  Orthodox  Church and  the  International  Jewish Establishment  which it  supported and promoted !!!(p.2,

The  founding  fathers of  European  Renaissance  and  European  Enlightenment  recognized  Emperor Julian as a  hero, a  radical, a  well – read  philosopher  and  a good  political  leader, someone who  had been  unfairly  treated  by  his  peers. Through  their  “objective”  historical analyses, these  European intellectuals, utilizing rationalism , empiricism and a dialectic  critique, concerning the  vast  societal   powers of  the  Church and  the  authoritarianism of  Byzantine political rule, they explained that  the hostile  position taken by  the Political and  the  Clerical Establishment  in relation to  Emperor Julian  was  a  consequence  of  his “unorthodox policies” ,undermining their own societal status and  personal interests. They said  that, “… then, they(the Church establishment)  had characterized a  truly  great human  as  a  ‘transgressor’, because he  prevented them from plundering the  empire. Also, because he  prevented them  from  destroying philosophy , the  letters, the arts  and  the Hellenic philosophic way of  thinking, of  living and  of  acting  freely. In  a  world where darkness, intellectual  ignorance and  Christianity were prevalent, like today…”.(translation of the Greek text)(p.1,

The Greek historian  Constantinos Paparigopoulos, in his famous work, ‘The  History of  the  Greek  Nation’, explains that  even though  Emperor Julian had instituted the policy  of  ‘religious  tolerance’  of  Constantine the  Great, the  official Greek historiography and the  Greek  Orthodox  Church, never stopped  categorizing him as an “apostate” and  as a “transgressor”, the  moment  that  he  personally had rejected Christianity as  his  own belief system  and had  dispensed with the state privileges of  the  Christian clerics.

As  with  Constantine the  Great(306A.D.-337A.D.), the  universal application of the social  institution of  “religious freedom” within the  Byzantine Empire, meant that all religions were  protected by  the  governing institutions of the  state, on  condition that  the  particular  religion did not entrench on or undermine the political integrity  and the political stability of  the  Byzantine State.

Using  the same prerogatives as  Constantine  the  Great in applying “religious  freedom” within  Byzantium, Julian utilized  state  policies, with  the only  difference being that  for him any  religion which  obstructed or  distorted his  policy  of  reviving and then establishing Ancient  Greek Civilization as representative of  all sectors of  the state and society in general, had to  be marginalized and  weakened. For   Julian, this religion was  Christianity, because first of all, it came  into  conflict culturally  and ideologically with Greek  Civilization,  which  Julian  had  embraced through  his Greek education, as  well  as the fact that the  Christian clerics were legally  unaccountable , while permanently enriching themselves, burdening financially  the  state funds through government grants and  tax exemptions on  their  property and  revenues!!!

At  the  same  time, Emperor Julian, considered that  an  accumulation of  great  wealth by the  Greek Orthodox Church and its  clergy, undermined the economic self-reliance and  naturally the  powers of  the  local  governments  and  administrations, while it  also provided  the  Greek  Orthodox Church with the means, ”the  gold coins”, to buy  off  the consciences and  the loyalty of   local  state officials, therefore influencing their state  policies and  legal decisions !!!(p.2,

Through the  state  legislation  for  “religious  tolerance”, Julian ”…provided general amnesty  to  the exiled Christian heretics, returned  their confiscated property and brought back from exile those Orthodox  Christians who  had  been  banished  by  the  Arian(heretical Christian dogma)  Emperor  Constantius B’…”.(translation of  the  Greek  text)(p.2,

Even  with the  Jewish  Community of  the   Byzantine Empire, in 363A.D., before starting his  military  campaigns against Persia  of  the Sassanids, Julian allowed the  Byzantine  Jews to  return to  Palestine, clarifying to them that he  was responding to”… their deep historical and religious desire to  go back to  Jerusalem, their holy  city, which they  yearned for in such a long time to  rebuild…”. At  the  same time, he  permitted them to renovate the  Holy Temple of  Solomon in Jerusalem!!!(p.6,

Julian  did  not  implement a  policy of  religious persecution against his  Christian citizens, because  from his long experience in public life, as  a political official of  the  Byzantine Empire, he  knew  very  well that  Christian Martyrs elevated the  religious  status and  the  popular appeal of  the  Christian Orthodox Church, which “theoretically”, its ideology and  social  values did not condone religious  violence.

Even though Julian as Byzantine Emperor did not wish to induce the persecution of  his  Christian subjects because of  the  state policy of  “religious freedom”, he  nevertheless enforced strict  legal  stipulations concerning any activity by the  Christians which would undermine   public  order  so that  they  could   protect their own  economic  interests and  privileges at  the  expense of  the  financial self-sufficiency of  the  ordinary  citizen and the  state departments  and institutions!!!

In his  letter to  the  inhabitants of  Basra, Julian addressing the  Christian population of that  major city  in  Asia Minor, writes the  following:”…Instead of  feeling  content that they  have  not  been  punished for  their wrongful actions, they  long for  their  previous powers, and  because they cannot anymore  direct  trials, draw up wills, usurp other people’s  estates  and  make  them  their  own, they are  “pulling the strings” to  instill  social  unrest, adding  fuel to  the  fire, exploiting old  tribulations to  create new  ones and  leading the public  to  social discord.

I   have  therefore decided to  announce to  all  of  the  city’s inhabitants  that it  is  forbidden for  them to rise up with  the  clerics , to  be  misled by  them and  to take up  stones, demonstrating  insubordination towards   their  state officials.

They  are  free to  assemble whenever they  want  and  to pray for  themselves the  manner  they  choose. Nevertheless, if  some want to convince them  to  rise up, supposedly for  their own  proper interests, they  should  not  participate in  these  type of  disturbances so as not to have  to face heavy punishment…”.(translation  of  the Greek  text)(p.4,

Emperor Julian’s  policy and  strategy of  reviving  Ancient  Greek  Civilization  did  not  only  involve limiting the religious, political, cultural  and  economic influence exercised by  the  Greek  Orthodox  Church and  its  Christian followers, always with the  International  Jewish  Establishment “lobbying behind  the scenes”, but it  also aimed  at  reinstating  Ancient  Greek  Religion and  its  institutions. Julian initiated  the  promotion and  the  consolidation of  Ancient  Greek  Philosophy  and the  Ancient  Greek  Sciences in  education, and finally, the application of  Ancient  Greek  Social  Standards in  the upbringing and  character formation of  young  people!!!(p.3,

In  order  to  ensure that  Ancient Greek Education and  Ancient  Greek  Character  Formation would be propagated and diffused within the schools and the academies of  the  Byzantine  Empire, he  passed a  decree excluding all  Christian  educators from  teaching  in  schools, because he believed that  these school  instructors would distort the  context of  their  curriculum , reinforcing their  Christian propaganda and  spreading   the  Christian Religion within the various educational  institutions and  throughout Byzantine  Society.

Since the “driving force” behind the propagation and  the consolidation of the Judeo-Christian Religion in the  Byzantine Empire was the  Greek Orthodox  Church with its seat in  Constantinople, Emperor Julian with a   number  of  decrees  “…put  a  break  at  the license of  the clerics  and  the  enrichment  of the  Church, without nevertheless  proceeding to  their  persecution…he prohibited  bequests to  the  churches and  obliged Christians to  compensate for  all the damages  they  had  caused  to  the  holy temples  of  the  Ethnics(pagan Greek citizens)…”.(translation of  the  Greek text)(p.2,

Justifying his  stance on  forbidding  Christian educators teaching in public educational institutions, Emperor  Julian sent  a  letter  to  the  inhabitants of  the city  of   Edessa in  Macedonia, telling them the following:”…I   believe that a proper education does not only    entail the  handling of  words and  language in  an organised  manner, but also in excelling, by  having a  healthy disposition  to   thinking logically, to  having the  correct opinion of  what  is  right and what is  wrong, what  is  beautiful and what is  obscene.

Therefore, the  person who does  not believe in  what  he  is  teaching  to  his  students, I  think     has distanced  himself to the same  degree from  education   as from   his own  integrity… And  if  the  difference between one’s thoughts and  what  one  says involves  trivial  matters, then the harm can  be  tolerated. Nevertheless, in  critical matters, if  someone teaches the opposite of what he believes, how can  he not  be  considered a  sly  person, very different  from being honest  and  conscientious, who  speaks in a positive way about things which he considers worthless; misleading  and  enticing  with  praises all  those who  he  wants  to  transmit his  own improprieties.

As  a  consequence, all those  people who  call  themselves teachers, have  to be  just and logical human  beings, and  the ideas that they have embraced should not come  into  conflict with  their public functions…”.(translation of  the  Greek text)(pp.2-3,

Basil  the  Great, the  future archbishop of   Caesaria  in  Cappadocia( Asia Minor)  and  Gregory  the  Theologian , the  future  archbishop of  Constantinople, had been schoolmates with  Julian at  the  Ethnic Academies of   Athens, when the last  one was  Caesar, approximately  between  354A.D.  and  355A.D.. These  first  two  Fathers of  Christian  Orthodoxy,  had  then, tried through  discussions and  religious  arguments to  convince Julian not  to  attempt  to  revive Ancient  Greek  Civilization and the Pagan Religion of  the  Ancient  Greeks, which  for  them meant “idolatry”. Finally, they  were not  able to  change  Julian’s  beliefs.

When in 361A.D., Julian became  Emperor  and  absolute  ruler  of  the  Byzantine  Empire, reinstating the culture  and  the religion of  the  Ancient  Greeks, his  former  companions and  classmates, now, powerful and influential  clerics, fought  him in  a  coarse  and  shameless way through their  Christian  propaganda diffused within  the  churches, the  archdioceses and  the  monasteries of  the Byzantium!!!

In  one  of the sermons  given  by  Gregory the  Theologian, directed against  Emperor  Julian, he  assigns  to  him the  following   defamatory   epithets:”…disrespectful, persecutor, traitor, tone deaf, insatiable, dogmatic, a sophist, a  killer of   Christians, hateful towards God, a  dragon, an apostate, a  pig covered in mud, a public enemy, etc…”.( translation  of  the Greek text)(p.38,Tsolis,Michalis,’Saint  Gregory the  Theologian’, The  Orthodox Press, Athens 1997)

The  Greek  historian , Polymnia Athanasiadou, in  her  joint work for  the Athens  Editing House, ‘The History of  the  Greek  Nation’, describes the 16 month reign of  Julian   as  positive, based  on  his  policies involving the development of  the cities, his  social  and administrative reforms, as  well as  his  initiatives  related  to innovations  he made  in  Byzantium’s  military complex  and  justice  system.

Doctor Athanasiadou characterizes Emperor Julian as  “…one  of  the most  gifted, courteous and  amicable  figures in  world history…”(translation  of  the  Greek text)(p.3, according to  the  French Historian, Cousin, in his book, ’The  History  of  Greek Philosophy’, he  emphasizes the fact  that “… the  whole world of   Ancient  Greek  Philosophy essentially  came  to  an  end with  the  death of Julian…”.(translation  of  the Greek text)(p.2,

Immediately after the death  of  Julian  in  June of  363A.D.,”…a  wave of terror broke  out in the Eastern regions of  the  Byzantine Empire. At  the  same  time, the  Great  Library  of   Antioch(major city  in  Asia Minor)  was  set  ablaze. There followed mass  persecutions and  violent killings of  philosophers, convictions  for magic  were imposed against  the  believers  of  the  ancient  Greek  divinities, there was destruction  of  ancient  Greek  temples but  also of   places  of  popular  gathering by  non-Christian Greeks, which  did not  represent  locations  of ritual, like gymnasiums(schools) and  museums. This went to its final  phase, with the interdiction of  the ancient Greek religion by  Byzantine  Emperor Theodosius in  November  392A.D. and the simultaneous prohibition of  the  Olympic  Games…”.(translation of  the  Greek text)(p.5,

From the  three  Fathers of  the  Greek  Orthodox  Church, we  have  already mentioned St. Basil the  Great and  St. Gregory the  Theologian in relation to the  propaganda  war  they   waged  against Emperor  Julian, concerning his policy of  reviving  Ancient Greek Civilization and  the  Ancient Greek  Religion within the  Byzantium. St. John Chrysostom , the  third  Father of   Christian Orthodoxy, who  was  appointed  Archbishop of  Constantinople by  Byzantine  Emperor  Arcadius  on  December 15, 398A.D., proved to  be more  influential and more  forceful in  his  battle  against the Ethnics(non-Christian Greek citizens), compared to St. Basil  and  St. Gregory.  This  was  because he  enjoyed the  absolute political support and  backing of  Emperor  Arcadius(395A.D.-408A.D.) and  that  of  the  Political  Elites  of  the  Byzantine  State.

We  shall therefore present some historical  commentaries and historical  facts  which relate to the position and the actions  taken by  St. John Chrysostom , concerning  the religious freedoms of the  Ethnics(Byzantine Greek pagans), as  well  as  their  cultural institutions and  their  religious  traditions  which  stemmed from  Ancient Greek Civilization!!!

St. John Chrysostom, criticizing the ideology of  the  Ethnics(non-Christian Greek  citizens) and their  Ancient  Greek  Philosophers, remarks the  following:”…If  you examine closely  the  inner thoughts of  the  Greeks, you  will  find  ashes and  dust , and  nothing  wholesome, just  an  open  tomb(the  Ancient  Greek Philosophers), full  of  filth and pus, with  their dogmas swarming with maggots… these are  the things  that  the Greeks begot  and  augmented, from what they  acquired from the philosophers…We  shall not  abandon  our  fight  against  them…”.(translation of the  Greek text)(pp.2-3,

In  the  following text  by  St.  Chrysostom, comparing the  quality of  the  person who is  a  Christian believer and  the Greek  Byzantine citizen who  feels  an  affinity towards the  Ancient  Greek  Spirit, he  notes  the  following:”…the  more  uncivilized a  nation  seems and refrains from  Greek education, so  much  more brilliant our  followers  seem… So  that the uncivilized believer, has conquered the  whole  world… and  while everything  which  is  related  to  the  Greeks is  dying  off and  is  annihilated, those things involving the  uncivilized believer, become brighter everyday…”.(translation of the  Greek  text)(pp.2-3,

After  the above   commentary, St.  Chrysostom   expresses  his  total  abhorrence  towards  the  major  Greek  Libraries, like the  Library  of   Alexandria, comparing their  books and  the  knowledge they contain  to  “demons”. He  says,”…What kind of  a  holy  place is  the  Temple  of  Serapis(library of  Alexandria) through its books??? This  cannot be …since demons inhabit this  place….probably  their  own demons(of the  Greeks)…and  due to  them(books) stands an  invisible altar  of  deception, where human souls are  being sacrificed….therefore  understand and  reveal(spread the message)  that  demons live  there…”.(translation of the  Greek text)(pp.2-3,

The  next narrative is an ecclesiastical edict  written  by   St. Chrysostom  as  Archbishop  of  Constantinople, which  sets  the  standards for  the  names chosen by  Byzantine  Christians when they baptize their  children in Church. The  choice has  to  be a  Jewish name and  not  a  Greek one. He  dictates that  “…No  one  should choose  a  name which  comes from one’s forefathers(Greek), like  the name of  the father, the mother, the grandfather or the great-grandfather, but  those of  the  just  ones( personalities from  the  Old  Testament)…”.(translation of  the  Greek text)(pp2-3,

As  a  final  historical record, clearly demonstrating the personal hate and intolerance  nursed by  St. John Chrysostom, archbishop of  Constantinople, against  all  elements of  Byzantine Society which  were related to  Ancient Greek  Civilization, we shall quote one  of  his ecclesiastic decrees  directed to  the  Prefect of  the  Eastern  Provinces  of  the  Byzantine  Empire, dealing with  the  demolition of  Ancient  Greek  Temples and  the utility of  their  marble to  construct  Christian  Churches and  the  houses of  rich  Byzantine Christians. The   authentic document  is  presented in a  study which  was  undertaken by  the  history professors  Angeliki  Vlachaki-Dimitriou, Maria  Drakou and  Christos Rigopoulos in  2013, which was subsidised by  the  municipality of  Galatsi  within  the  metropolis of  Athens. The  title of  their joint study  in Greek translation is, ‘Lime-kilns  and quarries- symbols of  civilization in  Galatsi and  beyond’.

Part of  the narrative notes the  following:”…During  the  first  years of  the  Byzantine  Empire and  more  precisely  on the 13th  of   July 399, a  decree was  sent out to  the  prefecture of  the  east(from John Chrysostom , Archbishop of Constantinople), which  expressed ,’the initiative of   John Chrysostom(347-407), under the  rule of emperor Arcadius(395-408), ordering  that  if  there  remained in the countryside temples standing , to  demolish them  quietly, so  that  the  last  traces of  superstition can  be eradicated’…”.

Then the  authors commenting on this  well documented historical information, say the  following:”…Consequently, all the marble from  ancient temples which  was not  used  for  the  construction  of  churches  and  houses, they transported it secretly to  the  voracious lime-kilns of  the limestone masons. What  a   Cultural  Crime  by the  Christian Byzantine Administration and  by the  Christian  Byzantine Church, something  similar to today’s Moslem Fanatics who  destroy in  a  systematic  way ancient  temples, old churches, monasteries and  mosques which  they  consider as  centers of  idolatry, in  the  context of an  Extreme Islamic  Dogma which  they  say they  follow. Then and  now!!!..”(translation of  the  Greek text)(Vlachaki-Dimitriou,Angeliki,Dakou,Maria,Rigopoulos,Christos,’Lime-kilns and  quarries –  symbols of  civilization in Galatsi  and  beyond’,p.19,edited by  the  Municipality of  Galatsi, Attica, 2013).



I  wish  everyone a  happy new  year and  a  little  more self-criticism, and to  my old friend  that  I  dedicated a  whole text in the past, less ephasis towards   his Facebook and  his  social  image, and  more  attention  to  his psyche, so that he would not have to take anti-depressant pills  every single day!!!


with love,

Alexander II