Globalization is not a new historical phenomenon, it has been present and active in various forms through many parts of the world , at different epochs. Today’s Globalization, was established after World War II by the United States and International American Corporate Interests, as America became the only World Super Power, politically, militarily, economically and culturally. The United States and American Economic Interests were now able to exercise political, economic and cultural dominance over all the countries attached to the international capitalist economic system or “the liberal” world market system. These countries were spread all over the world and in all continents, ranging from the developed industrialized nations like Great Britain, France, Japan and Germany, to the developing countries like India, Brazil, Argentina and the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa(due to their oil resources), and finally, to the underdeveloped nations, especially in Central Africa and in Central America, like Somalia, the Sudan, Nicaragua and the Honduras. All these countries , are “the playing turf ” of American Globalization!!!
We shall now examine some historical examples of Globalization which reflect the spectrum of the types of Globalization which were preponderant and dynamic in the past.
We will start with the political, economic and cultural Globalization, established by Alexander the Great and his key Macedonian military officers, during the end of the 4th century B.C.. They founded the Hellenistic Kingdoms which endured for more than three centuries, while historians have named this historical epoch, “the Hellenistic Age”.(http://herculean-wordpress.com/2007/04/12/hellenistic-kingdoms-)
After the death of Alexander the Great in 323B.C., his Universal Empire was divided up into the Hellenistic kingdoms, ruled by his most intimate and trusted military officers.
The most important Hellenistic kingdom was the Kingdom of Egypt, established by Ptolemy in 305B.C., and it was the Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled Egypt until the death of Cleopatra in 30B.C., the last Egyptian ruler of this Macedonian dynasty.
Second in historical and political importance was the Seleucid dynasty, founded by Seleucus in 305B.C., in Syria and in Mesopotamia. The Seleucid Empire is considered by many historians as one of the greatest in human history, while at the peak of its hegemony, its territory included Asia Minor, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Turkmenistan and the Indus Valley. The Seleucid Empire was finally defeated by Rome in 60B.C., as it later had occurred with the Egyptian kingdom of the Ptolemies .
The next Hellenistic dynasty in historical importance was the Antigonid dynasty within Greece , initiated by Antigonus in 306B.C., ruling most of the Greek Mainland with its Greek islands in the Aegean and Ionian Seas. The Antigonid dynasty was defeated by the Roman military forces in 146B.C., and became the Roman province of Macedonia.